Plumbing design outlines how water supply, waste and vent pipes will be installed in a building. This includes plan views and riser drawings using standard plumbing symbols. It also explains how each element works, such as how joints are correctly fitted and sloped drain systems.
Efficient plumbing designs include short runs between different fixtures to save energy resources and use quality plumbing materials. They also avoid clashes in piping and ductwork with other mechanical, electrical or structural elements.
There are a number of design considerations that must be taken into account when designing a plumbing system. These include the layout of pipes, the system for taking waste away, and the water supply. The plumbing design must be compatible with other systems and meet the requirements of various government agencies.
The layout of the building is another important factor. This can impact the size and complexity of the plumbing system. Ideally, the layout should minimize long piping runs, which can result in high utility charges and waste. It should also avoid conflicts with electrical wiring and structural elements.
The plumbing system needs to be able to handle water for different purposes, and this is especially important in health care facilities. Legionella and scald prevention are major concerns in these applications, and it is crucial to consider the design of the showers.
The pipes that run through your plumbing are made from a variety of materials. Some are metal, while others are plastic. A plumber will use piping materials that best match the job.
The most popular piping material is PVC, which stands for polyvinyl chloride. This durable, low-cost plastic can withstand pressure and is easy to work with. It is available in a wide range of sizes and thicknesses. The thicker the pipe, the stronger it is. PVC can be used for main water lines, waste drainage pipes and more.
Other piping materials include copper, which is resistant to corrosion and heat and is widely used in newer homes. However, copper can be expensive and is more prone to theft than other types of pipe.
Brass is another common piping material, though it is not as durable as copper. It is also riskier to install because it may contain lead, which is unhealthy for humans. A final piping material to consider is PEX, which is a type of cross-linked polyethylene.
Plumbing engineers design systems that involve water and sewers that often overlap with the mechanical and electrical engineering disciplines. They are responsible for creating systems that provide safe, clean and usable water to building occupants through pipes, fixtures, drains and water treatment. They also ensure sanitary sewage systems collect and divert waste into on-site containment sites or public street systems.
They coordinate plumbing fixtures and their corresponding valves, drains, tubing and pipe structures, including all necessary fire protection systems. They also use a whole building approach to help reduce water and wastewater consumption by implementing low flow fixtures.
These systems may also be used to create irrigation for a commercial landscape or manufacturing facilities that require special treated water. They also design systems that clear stormwater from buildings during severe weather events, allowing them to retain the water on site rather than draining into municipal systems. This allows for a sustainable site while supporting natural biospheric earth systems of recycling water, air and waste.
The plumbing system delivers water and gets rid of waste. It also includes vent stacks to remove odors and gases. Having a well-designed plumbing system will reduce energy consumption and save on water costs.
The location of plumbing equipment can have a significant impact on construction cost and project timelines. For example, a plumbing drain that enters the building with a steep slope should be avoided to prevent costly sewage back-ups and spills.
Incorporating a plumber into the design process will allow for a more collaborative plan and ensure the project stays on schedule. It will also help keep the project budget in check by minimizing coordination efforts and costs associated with unforeseen conditions.
Choosing cheaper materials and contractors in the beginning can end up costing more in the long run. Including high quality materials and professional contractors in the plumbing design will make sure that the project is built to last and won’t need costly repairs later on. Detailed specifications will also minimize change orders, RFIs, and simplify submittal processes, all of which can delay projects.